Category Archives: CroALa

A letter to Aldo Manuzio from Dubrovnik, 1500 (?)

Daniele Clario from Parma, a teacher at the school in Dubrovnik from 1482 to 1505, sent a brief letter to the Venetian publisher and printer Aldo Manuzio. Clario requested some books for his colleague “Helius poeta hinc nobilis”; at the time this could have been no one else but the poet laureate Ilija Crijević, Aelius Lampridius Cervinus (1463-1520; at the time, Crijević was teaching at the same school as Clario).
The letter was published in 1888 by Pierre de Nolhac. A digital edition of it, with a commentary identifying persons and books involved, and with a Croatian translation, is available at our Eklogai / Neolatina page (Greek and Latin dictionaries made available there by the wonderful Alpheios Tools service).
Our interest in Clario was refreshed when we found online The Latin Letters of Aldus Manutius, 1483-1500, digitally edited and translated in 2019 by the Neo-Latin Lab team at the Johns Hopkins University. Gratias agimus plurimas!

Latin drama in Croatia, two papers

Part of this summer has been spent in presenting results of analysis (or exploratory data analysis) of our CroALaDrama corpus (Github repo croaladrama), an open collection of records of performances of Latin drama in Croatia (link leads to the analysis site).

Alvarus Luna: title page of a play published in Ingolstadt, 1735; a play with a very similar title was performed in Zagreb in 1693.

In June, Nina Čengić and Neven Jovanović presented a paper at the Japan on the Jesuit stage conference in Vienna.

In August, Neven Jovanović presented at the 17th IANLS Conference in Albacete.

Texts and slides of both papers can be found in the CroALaDrama wiki.

The Neo-Latin drama is research focus of a small, but vibrant community, bringing together scholars from the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, USA, Austria, and Japan, and we have been very glad for the support and interest shown for our papers.

New accession to CroALa in 2018: Damjan Beneša, Poemata

Thanks to the masterly efforts of Vlado Rezar, and supported by the research project TeMrežaH (Textual Networks of Early Modern Croatia, PI Lahorka Plejić Poje), the lesser poems of Damjan Beneša (excluding the epic De morte Christi, which Rezar had edited in 2006) appeared in print last year, published by the Književni krug Split, as the first title of its series Kritička izdanja (Critical editions).
We have used the Christmas holidays to reformat Rezar’s XML edition, prepared with the Classical Text Editor, and to produce a CTS-compatible TEI XML edition of Beneša’s poemata. The edition is now included in CroALa sources (published as a Github and Zenodo repository), and in its BaseX edition, in the textgroup urn:cts:croala:benes01.

Damiani Benessae Poemata, ed. Vlado Rezar, Književni krug Split – Marulianum, 2017

New Accession to CroALa in 2018: Jeronim Bartučević

Over the last two months, after a longer hiatus, some new texts have been added to the Croatiae auctores Latini collection. These accessions also tested the algorithms for updating the CTS-compatible version of the sources.
In January we have finally included into CroALa two recently discovered elegies by Jeronim Bartučević, nicknamed Atticus, an esteemed humanist and teacher from the 16th c. Hvar, famous as the addressee of Petar Hektorović’s poem Ribanje i ribarsko prigovaranje (1556).
Darko Novaković, the editor of the editio princeps (2015), has pointed out that these short poems — a comment on an erotic dream of Bartučević’s friend Mikša Pelegrinović, and an anti-Ottoman appeal to the emperor Charles V — are the first works by Bartučević we are able to read and judge.
Bartučević’s texts are available in the versioned repositories of CroALa (there is a CTS version and a simpler one), and in the BaseX database version of the collection; soon we will update the version under Philologic as well.

Fishpond in Tvrdalj, the Hvar palazzo of Bartučević's friend Petar Hektorović

Index of saints in Croatian Latin school drama

Saints often appear as characters in Croatian Latin school drama (which is mostly Jesuit). Here is how we index them in our digital bibliography. (A more technical note here.)

St Marianus, hermit and confessor of Berry, has until now received no identifier on the internet (though Fr Labbé wrote a page on him, available as a digital facsimile on BSB). Therefore his record has a digital ID / URL base exclusively in CroALa: croala.s.marianus.

On the other hand, St Margaret of Cortona is in Wikipedia, so we can use her Wikidata URL:

St Margaret of Cortona

Papers connected with Croatia in the IANLS 2015 Vienna conference


From the rich programme of the IANLS 2015 conference we have culled abstracts of twelve papers connected with Croatia, or neighbouring regions. Members of the Croatica et Tyrolensia project are strongly represented.

Dominik Bartsch, Lonely walk at Schönbrunn, Vienna  View from Neptune's fountain to Schönbrunn Castle, Vienna.
Dominik Bartsch,
Lonely walk at Schönbrunn, Vienna
View from Neptune’s fountain to Schönbrunn Castle, Vienna.

Continue reading Papers connected with Croatia in the IANLS 2015 Vienna conference

Index personarum in CroALaBib

The bibliography branch of the Croatica et Tyrolensia project collects data on people and works connected with Croatian Latin. Following recommendations from the Cookbook of the SNAP:DRGN project, we have started putting our digital data online in a slightly more usable form (currently it exists in an XML database). The SNAP:DRGN Cookbook says:

The first task is to put your prosopography online, with stable URIs for as many entities as you can identify (person, name, source etc.). You need to be able to point (…) and reliably/persistently find (…) your record. This may be no more than an HTML page intended for human consumption.

For CroALaBib persons, this is now possible through the Index personarum on Now the URL leads to data we have collected on Andrija Jamometić. The links and pages were created with a BaseX XML database instance, using the Bootstrap HTML framework.

Among the 1468 persons listed, there are some Italians and some other authors (e. g. Aristotle). They are included either because they were the audience of Croatian authors, or Croatian writers translated their works. Additions to the CroALaBib prosopography are expected soon — we will publish a list of persons involved with the Latin school drama.

A handwritten prosopography, Berkeley.

Technical note: installing PhiloLogic 4 on localhost

PhiloLogic, developed by the ARTFL Project and the Digital Library Development Center at the University of Chicago, is an excellent system for serving and querying XML texts. CroALa and LatTy are currently deployed using PhiloLogic 3, but version 4 is almost ready to be published; try it out on Github (

Some notes on how we tried — and, thanks to PhiloLogic 4 developers, also succeeded — to get PhiloLogic 4 working and serving Croatian Latin texts on a local machine (localhost in computer networking parlance) are published on the Croatica et Tyrolensia wiki:

Philologia Latina

Analysing names in three Croatian epic poems

Gorana Stepanić, project member from the Juraj Dobrila University of Pula, works on comparing ways in which three Croatian neo-Latin epic authors – Jakov Bunić from Dubrovnik, Kajetan Vičić from Rijeka, and Josip Čobarnić from Makarska – use names in their poems. All three wrote long narrative religious epics, but each author is some 150 years later than his predecessor; they differ also in their places of origin (though all are along the Adriatic coast), in their social status, and in places where they lived.

The idea is to find all names (named entities) in their poems, lemmatise them, count their occurrences, and categorise: see which names belong to pagan mythology, which are Biblical, which are neither; which names belong to persons, which to places, and so on.

To achieve this, Gorana will be using not only our Croatiae auctores Latini text collection, but also a BaseX XML database of names and occurrences in the poems; one point of entry to this database, a special, sortable query, is on this page.

San Caetano di Thiene

Preliminary results will be published on our blog.


CroALa i CroTyr na festivalu (digitalizacije)

Željka Salopek, voditeljica stručne zbirke klasične filologije u Knjižnici Filozofskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu i suradnica projekta Croatica et Tyrolensia, predstavila je naš projekt na Petom festivalu hrvatskih digitalizacijskih projekata i objavljuje o tome kratak izvještaj.

Salopek izlaganje

U Nacionalnoj i sveučilišnoj knjižnici u Zagrebu od 20. do 21. ožujka 2015. održan je jubilarni, 5. festival hrvatskih digitalizacijskih projekata. Ovogodišnja su izlaganja bila iz područja digitalne humanistike, autorskog prava, korištenja digitalne kulturne baštine i digitalizacije specifičnih vrsta građe.

Naglašene su promjene koje digitalna građa unosi u istraživanja u humanistici te mogućnost interdisciplinarne suradnje u digitalizacijskim projektima. Upozoreno je na važnost kvalitetnog menadžmenta tih projekata. Iskustva gotovih digitalizacijskih projekata pokazala su koliko je digitalizacija danas važna u očuvanju i predstavljanju kulturne i znanstvene baštine.

Tema drugog dana festivala bila su autorska prava i prava korisnika u digitalnom okruženju. Rasprave te brojna pitanja nakon izlaganja istakla su potrebu za boljim smjernicama za primjenu i zaštitu ovih prava.

U izlaganju pod naslovom Pet godina zbirke Croatiae auctores Latini i prva godina projekta Croatica et Tyrolensia sudionike smo bolje upoznali s rastućom zbirkom CroALa (koja već broji 451 tekst 194 autora) te predstavili prve bibliografske i tekstualne rezultate projekta. Prikazali smo i tehnološku pozadinu zbirke te proces nastanka, označavanja i objave digitalnih tekstova. (Prezentaciju s izlaganja moguće je naći na stranicama festivala [PDF].)

CroALa se već šestu godinu upotpunjuje digitalnim izdanjima djela hrvatskih latinista nastalim u sklopu raznih domaćih i međunarodnih projekata. Već šestu godinu služi kao referentno mjesto i istraživački alat znanstvenicima koji se u svom radu koriste tim tekstovima. Osim toga, ima i njen velik potencijal u učenju latinskog jezika.

Continue reading CroALa i CroTyr na festivalu (digitalizacije)

Thinking about Croatian neo-Latin school drama

In philology and literary history, thinking starts from bibliography. Croatica et Tyrolensia now have a working page for browsing material on Croatian neo-Latin drama which Nina Čengić has collected and formatted into XML from the excellent bibliography:
Petranović, Martina and Lucija Ljubić. Repertoari hrvatskih kazališta: Repertoar hrvatskih kazališta : Knjiga peta : Deskriptivna obrada važnijih predstava na hrvatskom jeziku i izvedbi na stranim jezicima hrvatskih izvođača do 1840. godine : na temelju znanstvene literature. Zagreb: AGM, 2012.

Our browsing page (with categories in Croatian) is here:

First results show that there were at least 594 Croatian performances in Latin from the end of the 11th century until 1805.

Latin school drama, a few lines

This is just the first step, however. We intend to analyse and categorise themes of school plays (according to their titles), and to analyse places and times of performancees.


Implicitne godine u bibliografiji hrvatskih latinista

Nina Čengić, postdoktorandica koja se pridružila projektu Croatica et Tyrolensia početkom ove godine, izvještava o svome prvom zadatku.

Određivanje vremena u kojem je neki tekst nastao važan je element filološkog istraživanja. Osim unutrašnjih elemenata koji nam otkrivaju kronološke podatke o djelu, postoje i vanjske odrednice koje ukazuju, često jednoznačno i vrlo jasno, kada je ono nastalo. Među njima se nalazi i godina izdanja: egzaktan podatak, zatvoren za višestruke interpretacije, kostur kronologije mnogih istraživanja

Digitalna bibliografija hrvatskih latinista (radni naziv: croalabib) predstavlja korpus s velikim brojem jedinica za koje je godina izdanja važna i ključna sastavnica. Klasičan bibliografski pristup (npr. onaj Bibliografije hrvatskih latinista Šime Jurića i suradnika) priznaje kao pouzdane samo one datacije koje su na naslovnici izdanja navedene u impresumu. Zato 1442 jedinice nose kod Jurića oznaku sine anno. Ipak, i one se mogu datirati, te smo zapise uspjeli obogatiti 1181 naknadno uspostavljenom datacijom.

Continue reading Implicitne godine u bibliografiji hrvatskih latinista

RSA Berlin 2015: Špoljarić o renesansnim kanalima informiranja

I drugi suradnik projekta Croatica et Tyrolensia priredio je kratak prikaz svojeg izlaganja na godišnjem skupu Američkog društva za renesansu u Berlinu 2015. Postdoktorand Luka Špoljarić s Odsjeka za klasičnu filologiju Filozofskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu govorio je o privatnim kanalima informiranja u renesansnom Rimu, na primjeru pisama Francesca Maturanzija iz 1473. i 1474, s vijestima o tijeku sukoba s Osmanlijama (The Ottoman Wars and Personal Information Networks in Renaissance Rome: Francesco Maturanzio’s Letters from Rhodes, 1473-74).

OttomanJanissariesAndDefendingKnightsOfStJohnSiegeOfRhodes1522” by w:Fethullah Çelebi Arifi (historian, poet and painter) and/or w:Matrakçı Nasuh (painter of landscape) and/or other painters at the court of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent – Süleymanname MS. H. 1517, f. 149a, Topkapi Lib. Istambul; scanned from reproduction in “A story of history” by Arnold Toynbee. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.

Izlaganje, zamišljeno kao studija slučaja iz područja istraživanja projekta Croatica et Tyrolensia, održano je 27. ožujka 2015. na Sveučilištu Humboldt u Berlinu, u sklopu 61. godišnje konferencije Američkog renesansnog društva (Renaissance Society of America), na sesiji posvećenoj kolanju vijesti u renesansnom Rimu (News between Manuscript and Print in Renaissance Rome). Predsjedavala je prof. Jill Kraye s Instituta Warburg u Londonu, a slušalo je dvadesetak ljudi, uglavnom specijalista iz područja novolatinske filologije i povijesti renesansnog Rima. Na sesiji je izlagala i prof. Margaret Meserve sa Sveučilišta Notre Dame o žanru govora in obedientia koje su pred papama držali poslanici raznih europskih država.

Dok je izlaganje Meserve bilo posvećeno jednom primjeru službenog kanala kojim su informacije stizale u renesansni Rim, moje je izlaganje govorilo o jednom primjeru privatnog kanala: o pismima koje je perugianski humanist Francesco Maturanzio slao s otoka Roda u Rim hrvatskom biskupu i intelektualcu, te svome zaštitniku, Nikoli Modruškom, u vrijeme dok se osmanski sultan Mehmed II spremao za završni obračun s važnim kršćanskim saveznikom na istoku, vladarom turkmenskih Aqquyunlu plemena, Uzun Hasanom.

Upozorio sam na ta, dosad neobjavljena i široj znanstvenoj zajednici nepoznata, pisma želeći analizirati kako njihov sadržaj tako i način na koji je Maturanzio skupljao i humanistički oblikovao informacije na Rodu i slao ih dalje u Rim, ali obraćajući i pozornost na adresata pisama, Nikolu Modruškog. Naime, i Maturanzijeva pisma i drugi povijesni izvori potiču na promišljanje uloge biskupa Nikola u transmisiji informacija o Osmanlijama na papinskoj kuriji.

Analizom Maturanzijevih pisma Modruškom predstavljene su i istraživačke metode i ciljevi projekta Croatica et Tyrolensia, koji se bavi i rekonstrukcijom i analizom intelektualnih mreža hrvatskih humanista.

Rad na temelju ovoga izlaganja, koji će u prilogu sadržavati i izdanja pisama (koja će biti uključena i u zbirku CroALa), na engleskom jeziku, i bit će ponuđen na objavljivanje relevantnom međunarodnom časopisu koji se bavi poviješću renesanse.

Miscere quadrata rotundis

Can we compare two sets of neo-Latin texts? An experiment is underway. In our case, the sets are very unequal, and deliberately so: Croatiae auctores Latini (CroALa) has over 450 documents, and Latinitas Tyrolensis (LatTy) just 18 so far. There is now a page with a comparison of authors: about 190 in CroALa (of 1471 currently in our database), 12 (of 2377) in LatTy. There are also some telling charts about how the canon of Croatian Latin writers relates to the actual numbers of these writers over time.

But even more interesting than the numbers is the realization that there are several hidden categories of authors (and authorship) in our collections. It is easy to speak about “authors” when we do history of literature, but the term is not very precise. A literary corpus necessarily includes the anonymous, listed as one group though there were many people who did not sign their names on texts they wrote. There are also documents (and books, and manuscripts) containing many texts by many authors (the varii). There are texts written by people who were most definitely not – in case of CroALa – of Croatian origin (alieni): they were guests, immigrants, or simply living at the time when the notion of “national identity” fit only very roughly with what we today consider as such. Finally, there are texts by authors about whom we don’t know much except their names (the ignoti). All of them are “authors” – but how to count them?

The page linked above is produced by the BaseX RESTXQ and XQuery scripts, querying data in four of our databases: the Croatian texts, the Tyrolean texts, a Croatian neo-Latin prosopography, a Tyrolean prosopography of the same.

CroALa, a Christmas edition

A new edition of Croatiae auctores Latini is available. At the moment, the collection contains 451 documents and almost 5.5 million words (5,452,609 to be exact). Moreover, we have a new server (, a new landing page, and search pages which are in the process of redesign. Though the process of moving home is not quite complete yet, the new site is functional.

CroALa also includes few more texts, among them Mors Smail-agae Čengić, Ivan Baković’s 1957 Latin translation of the poem by Ivan Mažuranić, two works on Turks from 1545 by Bartul Đurđević / Bartolomej Georgijevic, and a 1864 translation of the death of Ugolino from Dante’s Inferno by Vlaho Getaldić.